Spencer Percival, First Lord of the Treasury


Spencer Percival as the only prime minister, to be assassinated, has a remarkably simple memorial in the parish church of St Luke, Charlton. Percival was the seventh son of the Ear of Egmont, as such he had to earn a living. Following time at Cambridge he was called to the bar and worked as a barrister, and was elected to parliament in 1796 as the MP of Northampton following the elevation of his cousin to the House of Lords. Percival continued working as a barrister as MPs did not receive a salary for their time in parliament.

Princess Caroline, the wife of the Prince of Wales, had been accused of adultery following her adoption of William Austin, a three-month old boy in 1802. During the subsequent ‘delicate inquiry’ Caroline was viciously supported by Percival. Caroline was found innocent of the main accusation of adultery, but testimony identified a number of unwise social contacts.

Percival became First Lord of the Treasury in 1809 and, during his short time as prime minister, must have been subject to a number of awkward negotiations with the Prince of Wales following his support for Princess Caroline.

Percival was shot in the lobby of the House of Commons on 11 May 1812. His assassin, John Bellingham, was hanged on 18 May.

Bellingham justification for the assassination followed his imprisonment in Russia. In 1803 the Russian ship Soleure was lost whilst in the White Sea. The ship was insured by Lloyds of London, and an insurance claim was submitted by the owner. An anonymous letter stated that the ship had been sabotaged. Bellingham was accused of writing the letter, accused of a substantial debt and was prevented from leaving Russia. He was jailed for one year until 1804.  He then tried to impeach the Governor General of St Petersburg, and was imprisoned again until 1808, when he was released onto the streets of Russia, with no permission to leave. A petition to the Tsar resulted in his return to Britain in 1809.

On his return to Britain, Bellingham petitioned for compensation for his imprisonment. As diplomatic relations had been broken between Britain and Russia this was refused. On 18 April 1812 Bellingham returned to the Foreign Office to press his case.  He was told, by a civil servant to take whatever action necessary. On 20 April he purchased two pistols.

The criminal case for assignation can be found at Old Bailey Online.


General Alexander Anderson


It is a great shame that one of the balls has been lost from the memorial, but the conservation management plan for the cemetery suggests the memorial originally had a pyramid of canon balls. Hopefully there are restoration plans to reconstruct the monument.

The dates of Anderson, and the surviving locations recorded on the monument, Beyrout, Gaza and Syria, suggest involvement in the 1840 Egyptian – Ottoman War. Without other balls the extent of other campaigning is presently unknown. Reference to the Royal Marines Light Infantry means a career lasting beyond 1855, when the force was renamed.

Following the defeat to Napoleon, during the years of relative peace, other than imperial wars, the containment of Russia, and defence of imperial acquisitions became a British priority. The Ottoman Empire, Persia and various central Asian states were viewed by Britain as buffers to be maintained between the British and Russian empires. Efforts to obtain Afghanistan increased the tensions between Britain and Russia.

The crisis of 1840 started in the 1830s with efforts by the Pasha of Egypt, a client state of the Ottoman Empire, to extend the area of influence into Palestine and Syria. The Sultan conceded these provinces in 1832. In 1839 the Ottomans struck back, however the army was defeated and the navy deserted at Alexandria. In 1840 Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia agreed to back the Ottomans, and the British Mediterranean Fleet began operations against Egypt.

Landings by the Royal Marines are listed on the monument and, photographs on the internet suggest one of the lost balls recorded, what looks to be D’Jebail, a castle occupied by Egyptian forces, or D’Jounie Bay, the main base used by the British during the campaign.

By November of 1840 following various landings by marines, pitched battles and naval engagements, negotiates led to the establishment of a hereditary Egyptian rule and the return of the Ottoman fleet. Whilst this limited campaign involved Britain working with Russia it was only in the next decade that the two powers were at war.

Sir Robert Strange


Sir Robert Strange was born in Kirkwall, Orkney, and apprenticed to an engraver in Edinburgh. Strange fought for the Jacobites in the 1745 wars, and, it is said, engraved the plates for the banknotes to the issued by a revived Stuart government.

After the failure of the rising Strange was exiled to France where he spent time in Rouen and Paris before returning to London in 1750.

On his return Strange worked as an engraver and print dealer, In 1760 Strange travelled to Italy and returned to England in 1765 with an international reputation. Strange was knighted in 1787 and died in 1792 in his house at 52 Great Queen Street.  55 and 56 Great Queen Street are presently the site of the Freemason’s Hall.  It is most likely number 52 is part of this extensive site.

The National Portrait Gallery holds a significant collection of his engravings https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/person/mp11065/sir-robert-strange?role=art including a number of Prince Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie.

James Cruikshank of Ballards Valley, St Mary’s, Jamaica

Version 2

James Cruikshank inherited lands in Jamaica inherited from his father and shared with his brother, who predeceased him in 1812 (James Cruikshank profile and legacies summary). A death in 1831 means James Cruikshank held slaves in Jamaica for his whole life, something not recorded on the memorial, other than through references to Jamaican property.

A death in 1831 means James Cruikshank died one month before the Baptist War an 11 day fight for freedom of approximately 60,000 enslaved people in Jamaica.

James’ daughter married Charles Cornwallis Dansey. Dansey saw action in the Napoleonic wars and after the death of Mary returned to London where he is recorded as living in Woolwich, He held the position of Chief Fire Officer at the Royal Laboratory, part of Woolwich Arsenal between 1839 and 1846, a period when the arsenal fell behind in research. The 1841 census records him living in Charlton.

Ballards Valley in 1832 is reported as an estate of 307 enslaved people. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/estate/view/2378.